THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND MIGRATION

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Education can help young migrants integrate into the society, learn the local language and develop the skills they will need for adult hood. Education is main determinant of wages both in the country of origin and the potential destination country.The decision about how much education to obtain and whether to migrate are often sequential, individuals in many cases make these choices simultaneously choosing education at home with a view to migrate later. A better skill acquisition could also be an important factor for migration. The acquisition of education may be the major reason for migration, for example student migration.

 

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Some countries like UK, US and Australia, are established ‘learning centre’ offering educational products to an international market. The acquision of special skills abroad that are most productive at home may also take on the job-for instance through the acquisition of language skills or learning of particular production technology can cause migration. Migration may also affect educational attainment of those who do not choose to move, both in the destination and their origin countries. Migration may lead to a change in the skill base of both sets of countries, affecting average levels of education and possibly generating educational externalities and new incentive for human capital investments.

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If immigration is selective in the sense that only better able individuals move, this may enhance the skill base in the destination country, there by leading to ‘brain drain’ in their country of origin. However, there may be circumstance where migrations enhance the skill base of both countries immigration may lead to a specialisation of non-immigrant workers in the destination country in areas where they have a competitive advantage. It may also lead to an improvement of the economic situation of migrant’s families, for instance through remittances, thus enabling children to attend school instead of working.

 

There is a positive relationship between education and migration. Educated individuals find it easier to access foreign labour markets because they have ‘saleable’ skills; they have access to information and easily adapt to a new environment. In addition to salary difference, the decision to migrate can also be driven by push- factors. This includes relatively high unemployment rates at home, especially among university graduates, the difficulty of getting a job that fits the training the graduate received, when domestic market cannot fully absorb an increasing level of educated labour force, migration becomes a necessity to resolving local market inequality potentially with large benefits to the individuals and nations involvement.

 

It is also very imperative to distinguish education received in the home country before migrating, and the education acquired in the host country. The children who arrive together with their parents, and young adults who immigrate to attend one of the host country’s universities, add to the existing human capital development. With education being a tradeable good, some countries have specialized in its production. For instance, UK, U.SA, Australia, Canada e.t.c

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After migration, individuals will potentially acquire further skills in the host country, as skills, obtained in the home country are not always fully transferable, have lower earnings than citizens, even when they belong to the same skill group as measured by the years of education obtained. The subsequent transfer of existing skills, facilitated, for example, through the complementary skills, like language and the acquisition of new skills lead to an increase in earnings, possibly at a faster rate than that of comparable native workers.

The quest to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, exposure and experience that will facilitate man’s goals and aspirations in life can cause migration.